Monday, January 20, 2020

Patriotism by Yukio Mishima Essay -- Yukio Mishima Patriotism Death

"Patriotism" by Yukio Mishima   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Death, in many places death is feared, taking one's own life is looked upon as cowardly and weak. This story sheds a different light on death; it shows the honor and respectful way of bowing out. To see the honor in death, one must understand the culture and the time period. The story 'Patriotism' written by Yukio Mishima shows a couple?s courage, love and faith as well as the man?s commitment to his country.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As the story goes, Shinji is a member of the Imperil forces. Shinji has taken an oath to fight for his country; his honor depends on his commitment. He will fight to death and risk his life whenever necessary to protect his livelihood. He's newly married and has even forsaken his honeymoon to fulfill his duties with the army. His wife has taken a silent oath, an understanding that her husband could die at anytime and that she too would accept the fate. This was traditional in Japan; her mother had given her a dagger so that when the day comes she will be ready to fulfill her commitment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Soon though Shinji and Rieko's Commitments to each other and the Imperial Force are challenged. Shinji is informed that his close colleagues and friends have been mutineers from the beginning. As the reality of death fronts itself to Shinji, he must decide whether to fight and possibly live or Take his own life and die. In the Japanese society this is an honorable way for one to bow out. This decision also weighs heavily on his wif...

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Bachelor of Arts Community development Essay

The unit explores the power of ideas to change the world and ourselves, focusing on their birth, transmission, evolution, and personal and global impact. Through the study of selected themes, students are introduced to the knowledge and approaches central to the arts, social sciences and humanities, and are invited to reflect on competing moral and social arguments. The development of writing and critical thinking skills are a core focus of the unit. The unit is arranged around four different topics, each of which is allocated five or six lectures and three tutorials. Each topic consists of an organising theme which is used to focus a set of contrasting disciplinary perspectives from within the arts, social sciences and humanities. For 2014, the four organising themes are: ââ€" ¦The individual and the community. ââ€" ¦Violence ââ€" ¦Truth and representation ââ€" ¦The good life The key aims of this unit are as follows: ââ€" ¦To introduce students to a range of methodological, conceptual and theoretical appraoches to the main discipline areas covered in the Bachelor of Arts degree. ââ€" ¦To show how social and moral issues may be examined from diverse perspectives, so as to result in differing evaluations, each offering potentially valuable illuminations. ââ€" ¦To provide students with the conceptual tools to become more articulate and reflective in their examination of social and moral issues. The majors which comprise the Bachelor of Arts in 2014 are: ââ€" ¦Asian Studies ââ€" ¦Australian Indigenous Studies ââ€" ¦Communication and Media Studies ââ€" ¦Community Development ââ€" ¦Criminology ââ€" ¦Education Studies ââ€" ¦English and Creative Writing ââ€" ¦Games Art and Design ââ€" ¦History ââ€" ¦Indonesian ââ€" ¦Interactive Digital Design ââ€" ¦International Aid and Development ââ€" ¦Japanese ââ€" ¦Journalism ââ€" ¦Legal Studies ââ€" ¦Philosophy ââ€" ¦Photography ââ€" ¦Public Relations ââ€" ¦Politics and International Studies ââ€" ¦Radio ââ€" ¦Religion ââ€" ¦Security, Terrorism and Counterterrorism Studies ââ€" ¦Social and Developmental Psychology ââ€" ¦Sociology ââ€" ¦Sound ââ€" ¦Sustainable Development ââ€" ¦Theatre and Drama ââ€" ¦Tourism and Events ââ€" ¦Web Communication

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Persuasive Essay On Rape - 1081 Words

â€Å"Stop.†, â€Å"Stay silent.†, â€Å"Just pretend that you’re somewhere else. Pretend that you aren’t getting sexually assaulted, or raped.† This is the all too common issue women go through in their minds, trying to block out the events that are occurring with them. Rape is an extreme issue, affecting over 280,000 Americans each year (RAINN). In numerous cases of rape, alcohol plays a factor in the sexual assault, either altering a victim or the perpetrator. The idea of alcohol and rape has become a controversial topic in society and court, determining the outcome of sexual assault cases. Because of this, the use of alcohol should play an important role in the cases, due to the fact that it inhibits proper decision making, sets a dangerous precedent†¦show more content†¦The brain is a unique part of the human body. Researchers are finding new information regarding it, everyday. When alcohol is consumed, it disrupts the normal function of the brain and its effect on decision making. Consuming alcohol affects how neurons send off messages. Specifically, the glutamate in alcohol â€Å"infiltrates the glutamate receptors in your synapses, hurting their ability to send off their normal fire messages.† (What Alcohol Actually Does to Your Brain and Body). This occurrence affects a person’s muscle control, speech, coordination, and judgement. (What Alcohol Actually Does to Your Brain and Body). When someone decides to participate in sexual activity, it might not necessarily be their own decision. Due to the fact that alcohol affects many functions of the brain, women who are under the influence are not in the right state of mind to comply or agree with sexual activity. In a recent survey, it was found that forty-seven percent of college women who were raped stated that they were unable to resist sexual activity as a result of their own alcohol use. (Top Ten Facts about Sexual Assault and Alcohol). Women should not be punished for their actions when under the influence. Instead, alcohol should be factored it to the case against the perpetrator, because the victim had a blurred recollection of the events taking place. In this modern age, men will do anything to get farther with or have sexual interactions with a girl. This can mean slipping dateShow MoreRelatedPersuasive Essay On Rape744 Words   |  3 PagesTherapists say the worst thing a survivor of rape can do is to remain silent, bottling their story up inside so it sinks like lead into their stomach. But, how do you find the words to possibly convey what has happened? How can there be words for such a feeling as losing your sanctity of self? I have many titles I have gained or earned over the years: college graduate, daughter, writer, dancer. But I am also a survivor of rape. Dancing used to be my sanctuary, whatever I could not place into wordsRead MorePersuasive Essay On Rape1023 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Sorry ma’am there just isn’t enough to bring this case to court† a statement that millions of victims of sexual assault, and rape must hear from the justice system. They must live the rest of their lives knowing two truths; first being that they were sexually assaulted and or raped, and the second truth being that the assailant was set free and may victimize more people. It is difficult to believe that even in modern times that this is happening, yet the truth of the matter is that these victimsRead MorePersuasive Essay On Rape1292 Words   |  6 PagesRape also known as sexual assault is having sexual intercourse or any form of sexual penetration against a person’s will or consent. It could be carried out by coercion, the use of physical power or abuse of authority. It is an act many societies, if not all discourage, and attracts different form of punishment in different geographical locations. There are many consequences of rape; some people suffer from depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Suicidal tendencies, and Anxiety Disorder. ItRead MorePersuasive Essay On Rape1456 Words   |  6 Pagesridiculed at an alarming rate. Many students have become increasingly fearful when attending their daily classes. Rape and date rape are serious problems that can lead to possible traumatization, depression, and suicide. Women are the main target of this kind of abuse, but men have also been known to suffer. Colleges have implemented new programs to help educate students about the risks of date rape, but they lack in their effectiveness to keep the students interested. Most of the courses are mandatory toRead MorePersuasive Essay On Rape962 Words   |  4 Pagesafte r invading your body without your consent, but that is not love, that is rape. Marital rape is an occurring problem all over the world and is not punished like normal rape. 10%-14% of women in only the US are raped by their husbands. Many people like Donald Trump’s lawyer, Michael Cohen believe that you can not be raped while you are married. However, according to the US definition (that seems to vary) of marital rape it means any unwanted intercourse or penetration (vaginal, anal, or oral) obtainedRead MoreA Closer Look at Date Rape944 Words   |  4 Pagesin her essay â€Å"Rape: A Bigger Danger than Feminists Know.† The â€Å"them† in Paglia’s statement is referring to women, and she is discussing the topic of date rape. Susan Jacoby, on the other hand, writes in her article â€Å"Common Decency,† that feminism is not responsible for the rising cases of date rape, but that it is the men who are at fault. Paglia’s argument is insightful and accurate, but Jacoby’s writing is flawed and not well-researched. Paglia includes all rhetorical appeals and persuasive techniquesRead MoreA Defense Of Abortion, By Judith Thomson And John Noonan990 Words   |  4 Pagesand John Noonan. Thomson makes many valid analogies in support of abortion in comparison to Noonan who just refutes basic arguments for abortion, and it is for this reason that Thomson is more persuasive. While Thomson makes many different analogies in his essay â€Å"A Defense of Abortion†, none were as persuasive as the famous violinist analogy. In the analogy, Thomas paints the picture of someone being kidnapped and their kidneys being used to support the life of the violinist. Thomson uses this argumentRead MoreThe Importance Of Writing781 Words   |  4 PagesAll throughout my public school education, the majority of my writing consisted of persuasive essays. While I have grown to become confident in my ability to produce this type of writing, when I started college, I felt lost writing research papers. The steps to writing a persuasive essay is so ingrained in my mind that it was hard to break out of that habit when my assignments required a different method. The only significant research paper that I wrote was during junior year of highschool. HoweverRead MoreWomen s Movement During The 1970 S1275 Words   |  6 PagesLiterature Essay During the waves of feminism many influential and significant movements that depicted the representation of women in a patronizing way. Whether it began in the 1970’s or the 1990’s these decades both held its own on the matters of oppression and the exploitation of women. Rape culture as well as women’s clothing options were twisted into making these decades some of the most influential for women of all times. From the way women were dressed, to celebrities standing out, rape cultureRead MorePersuasive Essay Topics1228 Words   |  5 Pages101 Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Morton Whether you are a student in need of a persuasive essay topic, or a teacher looking to assign a persuasive essay, this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. I taxed my brain to create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to todays society, but I believe I am happy with the results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24

Friday, December 27, 2019

The Events Leading Up to the Assassination of President...

The events leading up to the Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln There are men who want to take my life. And I have no doubt they will do it. . . If it is to be done, it is impossible to prevent it. This quote can closely be related to Abraham Lincoln and his assassination. This shows that President Lincoln was committed to his beliefs and traditions. When Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, it was because his killer was an anti-abolitionist, and he did not agree with Lincoln’s ways. He was a strong and intellectual way and was often frowned upon for his thinking. He died for what he believed in and he did not want it any other way. Sixteenth President-Elected March of 1861. In his short presidency Abraham Lincoln guided our†¦show more content†¦When none of his attempts were successful, he set a new plan, one not quite like the others, this one-an assassination. According to Booth’s former friend Louis Weichmann, Booth set out this plan after hearing Lincoln deliver a speech about Negro Suffrage. Abraham Lincoln’s death was a horrible situation. About ten days before his assassination he had a premonition of his death while he was sleeping. In his dream he heard strong sobs coming from somewhere in the White House. He was walking from room to room without seeing anyone. Eventually he came upon the East Room, and he entered. He saw a coffin with soldiers around it, acting as guards. He remembers asking â€Å"Who is dead in the White House?† and the soldier replied with â€Å"The President, he was killed by assassin!† He recalled a woman shrieking and then the next thing he knew, he was awake. This is one of the most investigated situations surrounding President Abraham Lincoln’s assassination because no one understands how such a thing could have happened. On April 14th, 1865 the President and the First Lady decided to go to a showing of Our American Cousin, at Ford’s Theatre. A policeman was positioned outside of the balcony door that evening. It is said that he left the theatre during intermission and went to the saloon next door for a drink, leaving Lincoln exposed. Just then, at 10:15 p.m., Booth slipped into the box and shot President Lincoln in the back of the head,Show MoreRelatedThe Assassination Of President Abraham Lincoln Essay983 Words   |  4 PagesAmerican history in my opinion is the Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. With no surprise I am writing about certain event that occurred leading up to, during, and after this unfortunate event. This historical event is clouded with conspiracy but I will try to avoid specifics of that particular view. Abraham Lincoln was born in a little town located within Hardin Country, Kentucky on February 12, 1809 ( He grew up dirt poor and in my opinion could be consideredRead MoreKilling Lincoln by Bill OReilly962 Words   |  4 PagesKilling Lincoln Book Review The mystery of how John Wilkes Booth pulled off the most influential and notorious assassinations in history is revealed in Killing Lincoln. The author of this book, Bill O’Reilly, built up the plot of the story through vivid historical details and pieced them together like a thriller. He tries to explain all of what happened on one of the most interesting and sad days in American history. Many conspiracies and Civil War ideals are on full display in the book. I agreeRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem O Captain ! My Captain By Walt Whitman826 Words   |  4 PagesMany Leaders lack the ability to move people. Mourning the death of a leader is an even bigger task to take on. Abraham Lincoln, in this case was an exception. In the famous poem, â€Å"O Captain! My Captain!† Written by, Walt Whitman in the year 1865. The poem, refers to a terrible event in American history; the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. Instead of the country celebrating and rejoicing over th e ending of the Civil War and being happy over the country being kept whole, everyone wasRead MoreThe Assassination of President Lincoln Essay1276 Words   |  6 PagesThe Assassination of President Lincoln The assassination of President Lincoln was so tragic because both Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth both believed they were doing the right thing. Abraham Lincoln wanted freedom for all because he believed that was right. He knew not everyone agreed and that was why America was having a Civil War but he felt that it was the right thing to do. John Wilkes Booth believed that there should be slaves in the south and did not agree with President Lincoln atRead MoreEssay On John Wilkes Booth1453 Words   |  6 PagesAshlie Clark U.S. History Prof. Kearney Due: September 7th, 2017 The First U.S. President to Ever be Assassinated Many people view Abraham Lincoln as the best president our country has ever had and I for one, agree. Lincoln dedicated his life to this country, spending most of his political life campaigning against slavery, letting the country know that he was against everything it stood for. However, upon Abraham Lincolns inauguration, our nation divided itself. The election signaled the secessionRead MoreLincolns Assassination: Foreshadowing the Implementation of the Secret Service, FBI, and CIA1181 Words   |  5 PagesApril 15th, 1865 the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated at Ford’s Theatre in Washington D.C. This was the first successful attempt to have a president assassinated while in office. After unsuccessful attempts, the first successful assassination of the president pointed out gaping flaws in the government. The first and most obvious flaw was the lack of secret service which provides the president with protection. Also, Lincoln’s a ssassination exposed the inability forRead MoreKilling Lincoln : The Shocking Assassination That Changed America Forever Essay1761 Words   |  8 PagesBill O’Reilly and Martin Dugard write Killing Lincoln: The Shocking Assassination That Changed America Forever , a book about the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln and the events leading up to the assassination. The purpose of the book is to strategically break down the days and events leading up to the death of Abraham Lincoln and provoke thoughts in the minds of the readers. The authors want to uncover proven and alleged conspiracy theories. Bill O’Reilly writes a plethora of other booksRead MoreAnalysis Of Bill O Reilly1286 Words   |  6 PagesThe book is about a series of events starting from the American Civil War and lasting to the final days of John Wilkes Booth’s plans to assassinate President Abraham Lincoln at the Ford’s Theatre. Author, Bill O’Reilly is attempting to correct the misleading assumptions and alleged conspiracies that had taken place leading up to the events of Lincoln’s assassination and explain in detail the scenarios and what a ruthless person Booth really was. O’Reilly wrote the book to provide us the history ofRead MorePresident Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth Essay examples1358 Words   |  6 Pages This evening at Ford’s Theater in Washington President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, who thinks he is helping the south in this act, but will that be the truth? In a moment we will go to reporter Krayton Schnepf who is on the scene, but until then lets get some background information on Abe. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809 in Hardin County, Kentucky in a one-room log cabin. He was the second son of Thomas and Nancy Lincoln. Here is Krayton Schnepf on the scene†¦..We areRead MoreKilling Lincoln By Bill O Reilly And Martin Dugard1609 Words   |  7 PagesKilling Lincoln by Bill O Reilly and Martin Dugard is a book that captures the days leading up to and surrounding President Abraham Lincoln’s death. The purpose of this book is to give the reader insight about anything relating to President Abraham Lincoln in his final days. Bill O’Reilly hosts his own news television show called â€Å"The O’Reilly Factor† which is aired on the Fox News Channel where he talks about political issues. He has written many other books with Dugard like Killing Kenn edy: The

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Multicultural Counseling Helping Culturally Diverse...

Over the course of this quarter, we have gone over a variety of counseling methods that can help a professional become more culturally competent. Multicultural counseling focuses on helping culturally diverse individuals work through their pressing issues and help them adapt to their new environment. Individuals coming from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds respond differently to therapeutic methods and using a single approach to counseling does not always work. Competent counselors need to take into account each client’s cultural backgrounds, biases, and traditions. In the duration of the class, we have gained insights on how power, privilege, and difference affect our daily lives and we have had the opportunity to reflect on the topics discussed in class affect our lives as well. In this paper, I will discuss these topics, as well as personal growth and areas for future growth in seeking multicultural competence in counseling. Identification of the most Surprising, Important Information One of the purposes of this class was to introduce the students to the world of multiculturalism and how it pertains to those going into counseling and school psychology. One of the most surprising things that I learned over the quarter is that it is nearly impossible for a counselor to completely become a competent multicultural counselor. Like any other person, counselors are predisposed to having biases towards others, and they can be aware or unaware that they exist canShow MoreRelatedDiversity, Racial, And Cultural Factors1277 Words   |  6 Pages Multicultural competence is defined as acquiring the essential skills in order to interact successful with individuals of diverse cultural or ethnic backgrounds (Holcomb- Mc Coy Myers, 1999). Multicultural competency in counseling helps clinicians diminish the deeply rooted assumptions of a particular group and enables them understand their own values and gain a better perspective and empathy to successfully respond towards the ne eds of diverse populations. Clinicians are able to learn and recognizeRead MoreThe Role of a Community Counselor1735 Words   |  7 Pagespurpose of this paper is to address the role and function of the community counselor. Additionally, the framework of the community counseling model is taken into account, including some of the strategies used in community counseling. The Role of a Community Counselor Community counseling can be defined as â€Å"†¦a comprehensive helping framework that is grounded in multicultural competence and oriented toward social justice (Lewis, Lewis, Daniels, amp; DAndrea, 2011). While this definition may serveRead MoreCompetence in Counseling Essay1574 Words   |  7 PagesRunning head: Counseling A Comprehensive Profession Aspects Of Counseling Tearia Hill William Carey University Aspects of Counseling Abstract Counseling is the professional guidance in resolving personal conflicts and emotional problems. It is advice, opinion, or instruction given in direction the judgment or conduct of another. Knowing how to posses personal qualities such as maturity, empathy, warmth, understanding, and knowledge. From a legal stand point ethics, morality, and law mustRead MoreCulturally Adapted Therapeutic Process2013 Words   |  9 PagesGreat strides have been made in the counseling field to promote multiculturalism, yet it is a complex endeavor and continues to meet challenges in implementation and efficacy. Challenges such as cultural encapsulation, client access to care, implementation of multicultural counseling competencies, and unique issues involved in the practice of counseling a diverse population of clients remains. Research is ongoing to determine the efficacy of culturally adapted treatments in the therapeutic processRead MoreUnderstanding Diversity to Optimize Patient Care Essay662 Wor ds   |  3 PagesAmerican Counseling Association and the American Psychological Association developed a multicultural guidelines and specific competencies for practice. The multicultural competencies traditionally include awareness, knowledge, and skills. We need to be aware of specific issues, develop knowledge about multicultural issues, and master skills for daily practice in our multicultural world. The issue of multicultural competence is central in professional helping careers. The American Counseling AssociationRead MoreEthics Paper Rough Draft : Group Dynamics2624 Words   |  11 Pagescompetent counselor is the ability and knowledge to integrate ethical codes into ones professional practice (Kocet, 2006). Therefore, this ethics paper will explore the topics of ethics as it is within groups as compared to ethics regarding individual counseling. Ethical decisions are those pertaining to the overarching moral principles, such as doing good for others which is termed benefic ence and to do no harm which is no maleficence in ethical terms (Rapin, 2004). Furthermore, it is imperativeRead MoreMental Health Couseling Programs734 Words   |  3 PagesMental health counseling programs are designed to prepare individuals/students to help clients with conflicts, personal problems, or emotional predicaments. Mental Health counseling has become a wide area of study that is highly recommended to those who are unbalanced and in need of support. Effective clinical mental health counselors acknowledge the differences amongst people and seek to improve their ability to work with diverse people (Gladding el at., 2010). This is very important, especiallyRead MoreEthics in Multicultural Counseling3154 Words   |  13 PagesEthical Issues in Multicultural Counseling Abstract In the past, counselors have lacked the knowledge and skills to interpret ethical guidelines in multicultural counseling. The ethical guidelines dictate how a counselor should have the necessary tools when conducting a counseling session. There is a shortfall of training and education when dealing with race, ethnicity, and cultural backgrounds in today’s society. Ethics is a hot topic for counselors, partially because there are so many differentRead MoreThe Theory Of Counseling And Therapy Theories6153 Words   |  25 PagesSummary * Influences of Theories--How counseling theories influence your understanding of how to work with consumers with disabilities. The theories we learned provided a broad-based understanding of numerous factors related to the evolution of counseling and therapy theories and practices, along with new counseling and therapy skills. The important premise that underscores one of the central challenges of counseling and psychotherapy is that we are all in the same world, but each of us makes differentRead MoreRacism And Bias Of The Black President946 Words   |  4 Pagesthat this era is post- racism and bias solely on the basis that the highest elected official is a man of color; what is anticipated is the demographic change in this country. The majority gap is closing and as helping professionals we need to be prepared to access the needs of a more diverse clientele. This process begins by helpers or counselors being aware of their own cultural biases and values. We cannot depend on laws, quotas and institutions to evoke change but to begin to look introspectively

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Electronic Data Interchange Service Providers

Question: Describe about the Electronic Data Interchange for Service Providers. Answer: Electronic form of making contract has been in vogue for last many years. Earlier they were made with respect to Electronic Data Interchange or EDI. They were privately dealt with and were subject to charges entailed to them. The service providers catered to specific organisations that had their prerogatives for very specific purposes. They were usually done for communication purposes between the manufacturer, wholesaler and the retailer. It simplified the efforts taken by these individuals to make arrangements for trade. In absence of such services, there would be unnecessary burden of paperwork. However this service is limited to people who have long lasting relationship. Then only EDI subsists without impediments. These are established in traditional conceptualisation of contract but may not be apt in the virtual world of trade. The traders, who intend to enter into business through internet, must understand the nuances which are required and the process by which electronic forms of contract are formed. The following things are to be present in the elements of electronic contracts- An offer which is basically desire for making an agreement on the basis of certain conditions being fulfilled. It can be made through almost all possible modes of communication. It can be through telephone discussions or through electronic mails. In the case of Reese Bros Plastics Ltd v Hamon- Sobelco Australia Pty Ltd (1988) 5 BPR 97325 (NSW CA), the postal rule is applicable to only for fax, telex and telephone. A prerequisite with respect to any electronic offers is how the offer looks or specifically its appearance. The intent or purpose comes as a secondary condition. The stress is upon how a man of reason would make out of the offer. The content of the homepage of a website or the language of the email can make contents of an offer. The intention becomes immaterial whether the web page creator actually wanted to make an offer or not or whether the email sender actually had the intent to make an offer or not. An acceptance to any such offer can result in a binding contract. This is very different from a traditional contract where the intention is of primordial importance. Here the appearance of the web content of email is enough to constitute offer and does not require further explanation from the maker of the content. However it has been noticed that distinction can be drawn between an offer and inviting someone to the offer. Contents in the webpage showing products and services with a price tag associated with them are more like inviting for buying. It is completely the choice of the buyer whether he or she chooses to be lured by the advertisement. If they are not, an offer does not exist at all. If they proceed to comply by the invitation the offer exists. Hence it is always advisable to retailers who display their wares online to show a disclaimer that the products are mere advertisement and an invitation and not direct offers. The terms and conditions to such invitations should also be mentioned along with such advertisements. In the case of Tallerman Co Pty Ltd v Nathans Merchandise (Victoria) Ltd Pty Ltd (1957) it was observed that acceptance is not proper when the manner of conveying is not thought of by the offeror. The offer is made by the consumer. The contract becomes binding when the retailer shows acceptance to that offer by agreeing to sell the product or service at the agreed terms and conditions. There is a rule in postal services that contract gets formed when a letter is sent accepting the offer. This concept is discussed in the case of Adam v Lindsell (1818) 106 ER 250. It is a classic old English case where it is discussed that acceptance actually happens when the acceptor of the offer sends his/her letter of acceptance through post. It is of primordial importance to ensure the time when the contract actually started. It is also essential to determine what law governs the formation of such contract. It has always been noticed that there is always an uncertain area regarding legal implicatio ns when one determines acceptance in case of internet contracts. In such cases it is necessary to determine how law has taken its stand in other types of communication. The most well known forms of other types of communications can be telegram, postal service, facsimile (fax) and telex. It is essential to determine the instances of acceptance in respect to all these types of communication- Telex- In the case of Entores Ltd v Miles Far East Corp (1955)2 QBD 1327 the judge found out that the rules which apply to postal services were not much relevant in cases of telex services. The traditional rules of contract were more relevant in such cases which say that the contract comes into effect when the acceptance is received. The judge was also of the view that telex services were not similarly comparable to telegram and post. The difference that was drawn was that telex mode of communication was more spontaneous way of communicating. The earlier decision drew support in the case of Brinkibon v Stahag v Stahal (1983) 2 AC 34. Here the postal method was compared in respect to present day dynamism in technology. It was suggested that a flexible approach should have been taken. In telex, the messages were not bound to reach the chosen recipient at once since a plethora of issues result hindrances while transmission. Hence it was difficult to justify all case by using a single ru le. Emails- Email is considered as the most spontaneous form of communication. They are not very accurate since they get delayed in transit and the time taken for an email to reach is also uncertain. Emails do not get delivered for various reasons. Often the email reaches the recipient but stays the in the in- box unseen and unread for many time. The traditional rules of contract are similarly applicable for emails and acceptance is taken into cognizance when the email gets read rather than when it gets sent. This principle is discussed in details in the case of Nunin Holdings v Tullarmarine Estates (1994) 1VR 47at 83. In commercial contracts consideration is referred to goods delivered and money paid for the goods delivered. The preconditions of consideration are no impediment to invalidate internet contracts where products and money is in transit. However doubt is raised over click wrap agreements of having considerations. These refer to services where by clicking on a link of the webpage online services like shareware get delivered. Courts usually refuse to consider such products or free software as genuine services and hence they negate the concept of consideration. There is always a legal relation created in any online commercial transaction though the notion is subject to review. The online retailer need not make much effort to prove that in case of refusal to pay by the customer, the presence of a contract. The customer must be made to go through procedures disallowing counter charge. Since there is little chance of one to one dealing, it is difficult to ensure legal capacity of the parties. Hence the parties to the contract have to fill online forms where every single detail of the parties are entered including identity proof validated by legal authorities[1]. A concept must be pondered that whether a mistaken offer can be rescinded by the person offering. It is said that between the act of sending the offer and the recipient gaining knowledge of the offer, the offer can be cancelled. Even before the recipient provides acceptance, the offer can be rescinded. However once acceptance is given by the recipient, it is impossible to rescind the offer since the offer gets its acceptance and a contract is created. The present contract nuance can be found in the case of Mobil Oil Australia v Wellcome International Mobil Oil v Lyndel Nominees [1998] FCA 205; (1998) 81 FCR 475. Section 7 of the Electronic Transactions (Victoria) Act 2000 {Act No.20/2000} speaks of legality of electronic retail system and validates them[2]. There is always chance of clashes and disputes when contractual relation is created through electronic medium. They include money which is significant in nature. Often the disputes become litigation bound. In these cases the costs of filing the case and defending the case cross the actual value of the product or service. In these situations, the concept of alternative dispute resolution is always effective. The parties to the contract have the choice to avoiding litigation and may refer their dispute to arbitration, conciliation or mediation. The parties can appoint a middle person known as the referee who is equipped with the ability to solve difficult issues regarding legal related and technology related matters. They will also help to resolve the matter by curbing excessive expenditure and saving time. The most significant use of ADR was during disputes of Y2K which had large amount of money involved with it. The question is whether the concept of alternate dispute resolution will turn out to be a stable alternative for the e-commerce industry. It is predicted that ADR will play a significant role in the future of digitalisation. It play a pivotal role in tackling challenging new problems that will emerge from the use of internet for carrying transactions of commercial nature. There are existences of forums on the internet that provide ADR services who are a saviour to parties suffering from online frauds. They are suitable alternatives to lengthy court procedures where expenses exceed the value of the claim. It is seen that people who are well versed in e-commerce can act as mediators in alternative dispute resolution system. This system can be followed in ICANN Uniform domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy. However certain issues rise when contracts are created through electronic medium. In maximum of the commercial electronic trade, there is only a single evidence of the contract which are the machine generated reports describing the trade details. However the problem that arises is that it is easy to tamper data stored in computer. The risk which the parties to the online trade face is that any other person can access to the trade data, change them or even delete them from the database without being caught. This becomes a grave concern when the documents are required in case any dispute pertaining to the trade. The evidence to the dispute will be destroyed and justice will be difficult to access. Hence it is the responsibility of the parties to the electronic transaction to ensure that information regarding the trade should be well secured. This could be done by electronically locking the computer with complex codes and passwords. Help can be secured from software experts to achieve t he same. So the biggest problem in a court is the evidentiary value of the computer created reports. It is very difficult to prove that the records are genuine because the content is insecure and can be easily accessed by third party hence making it vulnerable to tampering. There is way to avoid this serious issue[3]. Digital Signature Technology is a helpful solution. It will cater to save the evidentiary worth of the documents and save the authenticity of them in courts. By the use of digital signature, a message or document is converted by the method of cryptography. This technology helps to clarify the authenticity of the information and validates the trueness of the signatory. It also helps the party to ensure that the particular document was sent by a particular person. If any nuance of the document digitally secured gets tampered, by verifying one will be able to understand that the document has been changed as it is digitally signed. It will also be ensured that the digital signature is not made by the original signatory[4]. If any case of tampered records is discussed in courts, the court will reconsider the evidentiary value and excuse the glitch. Since the growth of technology is elevating tenfold, over a period of time digital signatures are losing the essence of security[5]. The concept of contract formation by internet and other electronic medium is still in rising and is gaining popularity in all straights in life. However since the electronic space is insecure in nature, third party with technical skills can misappropriate the information available, it is essential to ensure appropriate safeguards to secure the authenticity of the documents so that they do not lose the evidentiary value in the courts of law. Bibliography The Effective Formation Of Contracts By Electronic Means(2016) Davidson, Alan,The Law Of Electronic Commerce(Cambridge University Press, 2009) Australian Government Review Of Australian Contract Law(2012) THE PAPERLESS CONTRACT(2015) E-Commerce | Attorney-General's Department(2016) Formation Of Contracts By Email Is It Just The Same As The Post?(2016) User/Downloads/58-116-1-SM https://file:///D:/User/Downloads/58-116-1-SM%20(1).pdf Electronic Transactions (Victoria) Act 2000 Act No. 20/2000(2016)$FILE/00-020a.pdf

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Value of Liberal Arts Education in College or University

Introduction A key component of our modern society is its educational system. Through this system, individuals are provided with the tools necessary to play a part in the growth and ultimate advancement of the society. Citizens and governments all over the world have recognized the value of education.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Value of Liberal Arts Education in College or University specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The number of institutes of higher learning in the country has increased significantly and efforts have been made to ensure that more students attend college and university. However, the cost of higher education has risen significantly and students are pressured to focus on courses that promise high returns. The demand for career-related education has led to the undervaluing of Liberal Arts Education by most parents and governments. Instead, emphasis has been given to science and business rel ated courses, which have an obvious economic payoff. This paper will argue that liberal arts education should be encouraged since it adds value to society by offering the ideal college experience that promotes intellectual growth, personal development, and the acquisition of a wide range of skills by the student. The Value of Liberal Arts Liberal arts promote the development of higher-order intellectual skills in students. The student acquires intellectual capacities such as the ability to solve problems with multiple solutions, critical thinking, and skillful use of technology. Good thinking habits are acquired by the student and he/she is able to identify and grasp new concepts. The ability of an individual to engage in problem solving activities is sharpened by liberal arts education. Harris documents that a liberal arts education assists the student to think in an ordered fashion therefore increasing his/her ability to do intellectual work (1). An important fact is that this ski ll can be used in a wide range of settings since the knowledge of organized solutions is not confined to any specific discipline. Liberal arts education helps students avoid the narrow vision that overemphasizes specialization causes. Career driven education often leads to compartmentalization as students are made to focus entirely on their expert courses. This specialization is caused by the idea that students only need to undertake the courses that lead to work and money. This habit leads to the development of narrow world-views and a tunnel vision (Kazanjian 59). Students who are subjected to this form of education lack the fundamental skills that can make them ready for new challenges that might arise in their profession.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hart asserts that employers are against education that only instills specialized skills and knowledge in the college graduates (1 ). Instead, they prefer education that is well rounded in nature and enhances the intellectual skills of the student. Liberal arts education provides this well-rounded education since it recognizes that a student might have to deal with issues that are not related to his/her area of specialization. A liberal arts education offers practical intellectual foundation necessary for students to be successful in the modern work environment. Today’s workplace is complex in nature and the worker is required to have some critical knowledge and skills in order to be more productive. Forest demonstrates that managers in major corporations are looking for employees who can communicate efficiently, solve problems independently, and show effective use of technology (402). This wide range of traits cannot be acquired through education that only focuses on career driven courses. A liberal arts education provides the student with all these desirable traits therefore making them competitive in the work environment. The liberal arts education gives the student a global perspective and promotes effective citizenship. The knowledge of human cultures provided by this education is especially significant in today’s globalized world. The career-driven education provided to most students does not prepare them to be successful in the global economy. Research by Hart indicates that most recent college graduates lack the skills necessary to operate at the level of global economy (6). The liberal arts education offers the solution to this by providing college and university students with global competence. A liberal arts education enhances innovation and creativity in the students. A key characteristic of liberal arts is providing knowledge in a wide variety of subjects. Harris asserts that the wide range of knowledge stimulates creativity in the student (3). Students are able to come up with ideas inspired by a wide range of materials. The knowledge on many subjects also acts as motivation for the students to be creative. For this reason, graduates who have a liberal arts education program are more likely to contribute to innovation in the workplace environment. Hart suggests that employers are keen to find such innovative graduates (7).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Value of Liberal Arts Education in College or University specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Liberal arts education promotes happiness and the enjoyment by life. This education recognizes that life is rich and that education can be a source of pleasure for the student. It therefore encourages students to appreciate art and see beauty in humanity. By studying poetry, literature, and historical characters student develops a deep appreciation of life. Harris demonstrates that the enjoyment and happiness fostered by liberal art education are beneficial to the individual and the society (6). Happier individuals are more s atisfied with their lives and are more likely to engage in activities for the good of their community. Happiness also contributes to higher work productivity since a happy person will have lower rates of depression and mental illnesses. Liberal arts education helps in the development of good communication skills by the individual. Effective communication is the foundation of all relationships since it is the means through which human beings interact. Good communication skills enable people to properly communicate their ideas and relate with others. Kazanjian asserts that for an organization to achieve its goals workers must learn how to communicate with each other effectively and treat each other with respect (62). The acquisition of good writing and reading skills is deemed integral to the future success of the individual. Students in liberal art programs are required to develop skills in writing and making oral presentations. Forest reveals that students are helped to acquire the needed self-confidence to communicate effectively (402). Such students are better equipped to handle different situations in the real world environment. Hart declares that employers are looking for graduates who have good communication skills that will promote success in the work setting (7). These are the kind of graduates that liberal arts education produces. Liberal art education enhances social skills of the individual and these social skills are integral in all social settings and work environments. Forest notes that liberal arts makes an emphasis on the significance of human relationships in all settings (402). Students are taught to demonstrate respect in all relationships. This leads to the development of good personal and work relationships. Forest reveals that students with a liberal art education background show greater sensitivity to their fellow human beings and co-workers (Kazanjian 62). The liberal arts also encourage the individual to develop a sense of social respon sibility. Exposure to a wide range of cultures promotes the appreciation of diversity.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Students are taught to not only respect differences but also appreciate them. By learning about various cultures and traditions, students develop an appreciation of diverse cultures. The moral standing of the individual is also promoted by the liberal arts. By studying the early philosophers, the sense of ethics and integrity in the student is promoted. Conclusion This paper is set out to argue that a liberal art education provides value to the student and the society. It began by noting that the perception that a liberal arts education leaves a student with few career options has contributed to the negative view of the value of this education by many members of the public. The paper has demonstrated that liberal art education promotes the intellectual growth of the individual and encourages creativity. Contrary to popular belief, liberal arts education equips the student with the skills needed in the modern work place. The paper has revealed that liberal arts education is not conce rned with developing skills that are focused on a particular career. Instead, the education offered leads to the development of a well-rounded individual who has general knowledge and the intellectual skills necessary to function in a wide range of environments. The education also promotes personal growth and development of the student. Considering the many positive values of liberal art education, the public and governments should promote these programs in all institutes of higher learning. Works Cited Forest, James. Higher Education in the United States: An Encyclopedia. NY: ABC-CLIO, 2002. Print. Hart, Peter. Should Colleges Prepare Students To Succeed In Today’s Global Economy? Washington, DC: Peter Hart Research Associates, Inc., 2006. Print. Harris, Robert. On the Purpose of a Liberal Arts Education. 14 Mar. 1991. Web. Kazanjian, Michael. Learning Values Lifelong: From Inert Ideas to Wholes. Amsterdam: Rodipi, 2002, Print. 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